Silver spring, MD
March 21, 2008
Last signed in: November 16, 2008
I'm Spirit Viewer,Remote Viewer,Psychic & more. I see & try to get their message out there!. P A R A P S Y C O L O G Y AN THEY UNDERSTANDING I'm a Spirit Viewer a messager for spirit's,ghost,shadow's Also A Remote Viewer who don't get payed for helping other's!. But I look at this as a gift to help!. And Money get's in the way of the reading's. I as of you not to tell me anything just need a pic of one's eye's!. Also I Can feel others stress and some times may invade your world for upto 2 to 3 days!. I seek way's to get wisdom to feel the mind. I seek to make my dreams of Busiiness happen so if anyone know a way please tell what you can!. I'm sure grateful to be apart of jtv thanks to all!. Clairaudience is the ability to "hear" sounds or voices not audible to others. Some clairaudients called "mediums" may receive verbal messages from "spirits" or deceased persons. Clairsentience is the ability to "feel" sensations or emotional energies not noticed by others. Clairsentients who have this ability may be "psychic healers". Channelers act as a "channel" for information from the spirit realm, either writing it down ("automatic writing") or letting a voice speak through them. Tarot card readers use intuition to interpret the "spread" of cards, but are not necessarily "psychic" I am a psychic, empath, and a mental healer. In order for me to retain these gifts I must keep focused on the one reason why I am here. I was meant to help others in this world. To prove that the one reason we are here is to love one another. I may be young, but after the many different readings and people coming to me for help I have learned at a reasonably age that love is the only reason we were created by God. I would be glad to answer any more questions. Please message me if you have any. Remote viewing experiments test the ability to gather information on a remote target consisting of an object, place, or person that is hidden from the physical perception of the viewer and typically separated from the viewer at some distance. In one type of remote viewing experiment, a pool of several hundred photographs are created. One of these is randomly selected by a third party to be the target. It is then set aside in a remote location. The remote viewer attempts to sketch or otherwise describe that remote target photo. This procedure is repeated for a number of different targets. Many ways of analytically evaluating the results of this sort of experiment have been developed. One common method is to take the group of seven target photos and responses, randomly shuffle the targets and responses, and then ask independent judges to rank or match the correct targets with the participant's actual responses. This method assumes that if there were an anomalous transfer of information, the responses should correspond more closely to the correct targets than to the mismatched targets. Several hundred such trials have been conducted by investigators over the past 25 years, including by the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory (PEAR) and by scientists at SRI International and SAIC, under contract by the U.S. government. The cumulative data was interpreted by Professor of Aerospace Science Robert G. Jahn and psychologist Brenda Dunne at PEAR as indicating that information about remote photos, actual scenes, and events can be perceived beyond chance expectationRemote viewing experiments test the ability to gather information on a remote target consisting of an object, place, or person that is hidden from the physical perception of the viewer and typically separated from the viewer at some distance. In one type of remote viewing experiment, a pool of several hundred photographs are created. One of these is randomly selected by a third party to be the target. It is then set aside in a remote location. The remote viewer attempts to sketch or otherwise describe that remote target photo. This procedure is repeated for a number of different targets. Many ways of analytically evaluating the results of this sort of experiment have been developed. One common method is to take the group of seven target photos and responses, randomly shuffle the targets and responses, and then ask independent judges to rank or match the correct targets with the participant's actual responses. This method assumes that if there were an anomalous transfer of information, the responses should correspond more closely to the correct targets than to the mismatched targets!. Parapsychology is the scientific and scholarly study of three kinds of unusual events (ESP, mind-matter interaction, and survival), which are associated with human experience. The existence of these phenomena suggest that the strict subjective/objective dichotomy proposed by the old paradigm (see below) may not be quite so clear-cut as once thought. Instead, these phenomena may be part of a spectrum of what is possible, with some events and experiences occasionally falling between purely subjective and purely objective. We call such phenomena "anomalous" because they are difficult to explain within current scientific models. (link below) CLAIRVOYANCE Paranormal acquisition of information concerning an object or contemporary physical event; in contrast to telepathy, the information is assumed to derive directly from an external physical source (such as a concealed photograph), and not from the mind of another person; one particular form of extrasensory perception, it is not to be confused with the vulgar interpretation of “clairvoyance” as meaning “knowledge of the future” (for which see Precognition). (link below) PARAPSYCHOLOGY Term coined in German by Max Dessoir (1889) and adopted by J. B. Rhine in English to refer to the scientific study of paranormal or ostensibly paranormal phenomena, that is, psi; except in Britain, the term has largely superseded the older expression “psychical research;” used by some to refer to the experimental approach to the field. Parapsychological research involves a variety of methods including laboratory research and fieldwork, which is conducted at privately funded laboratories and some universities around the world though there are fewer universities actively sponsoring parapsychological research today than in years past. Such research is published in specialized parapsychological publications, though a smaller number of articles on parapsychological research have also appeared in more mainstream journals. Experiments conducted by parapsychologists have included the use of random number generators to test for evidence of psychokinesis, sensory-deprivation Ganzfeld experiments to test for extrasensory perception, and research trials conducted under contract to the United States government to investigate the possibility of remote viewing. Active parapsychologists have admitted difficulty in getting scientists to accept their research, and science educators and scientists have called the subject pseudoscience. Scientists such as Ray Hyman, Stanley Krippner, and James Alcock have criticized both the methods used and the results obtained in parapsychology. Skeptical researchers suggest that methodological flaws, rather than the anomalistic explanations offered by many parapsychologists, provide the best explanation for apparent experimental successes. Parapsychologists have interpreted the cumulative data on this and similar DMILS experiments to suggest that one person's attention directed towards a remote, isolated person can significantly activate or calm that person's nervous system. In a meta-analysis of these experiments published in the British Journal of Psychology in 2004, researchers found that there was a small but significant overall DMILS effect. However, the study also found that when a small number of the highest-quality studies from one laboratory were analyzed, the effect size was not significant. The authors concluded that although the existence of some anomaly related to distant intentions cannot be ruled out, there was also a shortage of independent replications and theoretical concepts. Physical Mediums: Physical phenomena is of such a nature that it is usually demonstrated only at private seances. Any person sitting with the medium can hear or see what is happening. By means of raps, audible voices or materialised figures the spirit people convey intimate information about themselves, their recollection of their earthly lives and details of their lives in the spirit world. Mental Mediums: Mental phenomena is demonstrated through the mind of a medium. Mediums identify three forms of mental mediumship: 1. CLAIRVOYANCE when mediums see the spirit 2. CLAIRAUDIENCE when mediums hear the spirit 3. CLAIRSENTIENCE when mediums senses the presence and the thoughts of the spirit. Mental phenomena is the type most often demonstrated in public. Trance mediumship is a form of mental mediumship in which the medium is overshadowed by the spirit communicator and allowed to speak directly through the medium. E.V.P. is short for Electronic Voice Phenomenon. In essence EVP is the capturing of disembodied voices via audio recording devices. Most in the scientific community have dismissed ALL of the hundreds of thousands of voices caught since the first known recordings were made in the 1950s. Some explanations offered include, outright fraud, stray signals from TV, CB, or commercial radio, and the time tested skeptics crutch, active imaginations. All of these things can and do account for some EVPs. However, very often not only are the detected voices remarkably clear as day, but interactive as well. They answer questions, make comments about their surroundings, and join in on the conversation quite often! Some might say it all just sounds that way by chance, but statistically speaking well...not a chance!!! Also note the average comment like this not surprisingly often comes from individuals who have heard little or no EVPs at all. It is is believed by many that the way in which a spirit achieves this communication is by somehow interrupting the electromagnetic field. Whatever means by which this communication is achieved, one thing is clear, the frequency at which it is done cannot be picked up by the human ear, but the recording devices seem to hear nothing short of what we call the dead. Definitions of Empathic on the Web: • or Pathétiseur - an empathic is someone who is able to emit his forces and penetrate a receptive, or empathized. www.kheper.net/topics/Theon/glossary.html • Having the capability to share the emotions of another through psychic means. www.marveldirectory.com/glossary/glossaryae.htm • Similar to telepathic. An empathic being can intimately sense the emotions of others, but not individual thought patterns. www.tardis.ed.ac.uk/~abr/drwho/tardis/type40/node62.html • the action of understanding, being aware of, being sensitive to, and vicariously experiencing the feelings, thoughts, and experience of another of either the past or present without having the feelings, thoughts, and experience fully communicated in an objectively explicit manner www.spi-texas.org/terms.html • the ability to share in another's emotions or feelings by assimilation of subtle energy exchanges within the etheric bodies. metempyrion.org/words_and_terms.htm • showing empathy or ready comprehension of others' states; "a sensitive and empathetic school counselor" wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn Everyone is psychic to some degree using the natural intuitive or sixth sense that is inherent in all of us. A psychic is sensitive to the electrical, magnetic and other energies emanating from the individual and known as the aura. A psychic is able to access information from the emotional, physical and spiritual parts of the auric field. As the aura contains all the information about a person's life, psychic readings can be very accurate. A psychic also uses the natural ability to be aware of non-verbal communication i.e.. body language, facial expression, dress sense etc. Great care and integrity is needed on behalf of the psychic during readings as some people seeking help can be vulnerable. A psychic can subconsciously calculate possible future events by an assessment of information available by the natural course of events and give probable forecasts. All psychics should adhere to a code of conduct of not predicting or frightening people with talk of falls or accidents or indeed deaths of loved ones. It should also be noted that a psychic is able to "sense" on a purely material level and not able to "tune in" to the spirit world, except by accident. All mediums are psychics but not all psychics are mediums. Tarot cards, runes, palmistry etc. are all tools that can be used in conjunction with this natural ability. There are many exercises that can be done to increase the natural psychic ability of everyone.Have you ever felt drained or haunted by a relationship. In here you will find rituals and spells, theory and information about the The Evil Eye,Witchcraft, The Power of Thought Form, Astral Attack Physical and EmotionalSymptoms of Astral Attack, Psychological Disturbances, Situational Symptoms, Enviromental Symptoms,The Psychic Vampire, Dealing with Alcoholics, Manic Depressives,Live Hauntings,Amateur Shamans and Witchlets, Cults Gurus and Group Mind as well as spells, charm rituals and meditations for halting these situations.Psychic Psychical: a. pert. to the soul, spirit, or mind; pert. to the force believed by Spiritualists to produce spiritualistic phenomena; spiritualistic. - psychically adv. psychic n. a person sensitive to spiritualistic forces; a medium; a clairvoyant. - psychics n. pl. psychology - psychicism n. the study of spiritualistic phenomena. - psychicist n. [ the soul, the mind]. Collins Dictionary.Psychics are aware of things one cannot perceive through the five physical senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste or smell. They are said to have a "sixth sense" which is often called "extra sensory perception" (ESP) or just "intuition". There are several types of psychic "sensings" similar to seeing, hearing and feeling. Clairvoyance is the ability to "see" images in one's mind that are not visible to the naked eye, and may sometimes be scenes from the future or the past. Some clairvoyants may see the colors of "auras", the energy patterns surrounding people's bodies.Psychometry A psychic is an individual who possesses the abilities of extra-sensory perception. That may include one or more of the following: clairvoyance, psychometry, precognition, or other paranormal abilities such as psychokinesis. The study of such paranormal abilities is known as parapsychology.Psychometry is the ability to read and tune into an object so that you can give details about it, it owners and its history. The main use of psychometry is in identifying its owner - and their experiences. The auric field of the object contains within it the information of all that the object has come into contact with. Much like a diary or file of events. When you are sensitive enough you are able to tune into that field, and you can then access and see those memories that are stored. You can then use them to identify whom the object belongs to, that person and their feelings, and also a number of other things about both the item and the owner. Many mediums use psychometry as a means to obtaining a link with the person that they are reading for - the object gives them a focus to help them to sharpen and heighten there abilities. Police investigations have used psychometrists on items belonging to victims - or clues left at the scenes of crimes to try and identify criminals and cure crimes. The term psychometric was coined in 1842 by an American physician and scientist, J Rhodes Buchanan who spent a large part of his life exploring psychic phenomenon. He made the word from the Greek word Psyche, meaning soul and metron meaning measure. Therefore a literal translation would be soul measuring. Choosing the right object upon which to practice is important - beginners are better off using an object that does not have mixture of vibrations from a variety of people. Something that is regularly worn or used by the same person is excellent - particularly jewelry and watches which are worn almost daily. Avoid practicing on gemstones or crystals as they have strong vibrations of there own. It may be necessary for you to say what you feel to start with - and in doing this you may feel unsure. But don't be afraid to ask a few questions to get you started, but don't fish for info - if you do you are only fooling yourself. Settle yourself comfortably with the object in your hands. Visualize white light entering your body from above and flowing down through you. This may take time - but don't rush yourself. Say what you think or feel as you sit there. Gently rub the item with your finger tips and allow images or thoughts to form in your mind. Don't be put off if the first few attempts produce no results - this is quite normal. It can take time to learn to tune in enough for it to work. Also if the owner of an object says that things you say aren't right - don't feel disheartened. Ask them how long they have had the object and whether they know its previous history. It could be that you have tuned into a previous owner or some such thing. Psychic vampires are people who prey on the vital, human life energies of others. They are not believed to be undead. They are mortal people whose need for energy metaphorically connects them to the life-stealing predators of vampire myth. Psychic Vampires are not just imaginary creatures of fiction or legend-they really exist. They are the people who become experts at robbing others of their vital energy. We've all known them. Despite the havoc they wreak, most psychic vampires are not evil life suckers, but rather people caught in a debilitating cycle of energy addiction. Definition: Living person who "drains" others emotionally either empathically (draining the auric life force) or metaphorically (someone who takes emotionally without giving anything back; a "user"). Psychic Vampires - They are now known as psychic vampires or PV's. Psi vampires is the preferable term for them. Psychic vampirism is alive and flourishing in the world today. It exacts a heavy toll-it demands life-force energy and in some instances, it literally destroys lives. At a personal level, it wastes our energies, dampens the immune system, and undermines the body’s natural defenses against illness. At a global level, it can literally drain the earth of its survival resources and interrupt its harmony and balance. It follows that finding ways of preventing psychic vampirism, or successfully counteracting it, must be among our top priorities. There are several forms of psychic vampirism, each of which demands a host victim. One-on-one Psychic Vampire Attacks Every psychic-vampire attack "consumes" its victim's energy and over the long haul destroys the energy system itself. Victims of repeated vampire attacks may experience "chronic fatigue, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbances, excessive anxiety, sexual indifference, and impaired memory. The best defense is a strong internal system. Boost your own personal energy. In the one-on-one vampire encounter, the psychic vampire taps into the energy system of a selected host victim for the express purpose of extracting energy. Typical one-on-one psychic vampires are not agents of evil bent on the destruction of their victims. Furthermore, they possess none of the supernatural powers attributed to folklore vampires. They function instead from a position of profound weakness. Deficient in energy, and with their own energy system usually impaired, they seek other energy options-the energy system of a host victim. Almost everyone has experienced the common vampire interaction that left them both mentally and physically fatigued. Unfortunately, the psychic vampire’s energy system is only temporarily replenished, thus requiring repeated attacks. For the host victim of recurring attacks, the consequences can be extremely harmful. In the group setting, psychic vampirism can involve multiple vampires and victims. It can occur within groups and between groups, with power, wealth, and control being among its major goals. Highly competitive groups whose goal is to subdue or defeat the opposition, along with heated political campaigns, seem particularly vulnerable to group psychic vampirism. In its most dangerous form, it can include the organized activities of predator gangs, criminal groups, and drug trafficking networks. AND PEOPLE IF YOU HAVE TO TELL A PSYCHIC ANY THING ABOUT YOUR SELF THAY ARE NOT PSYCHIC'S DO NOT NEED ANY INFO NOW THAY MAY ASK YOU VERAFI YES/NO ONLY FOR ME JUST NEED A PHOTO OF THE ONE I'M READING!. Parapsychology is the study of purported paranormal abilities or "psi" (e.g., ESP, psychokinesis, Near Death Experiences, reincarnation, etc.) which are associated with human experience. Most parapsychologists believe that scientific research will eventually support these abilities as real phenomena, although it may require an expansion of our scientific knowledge to do so. At the present time, there is very little scientific evidence to support any of these conjectures. From a skeptical point of view, most scientists try to explain observed and observable phenomena while parapsychologists try to observe unexplainable phenomena. All the other sciences have led us away from superstition and magical thinking, while parapsychology has tried to find a scientific basis for such things as divination and mediumship. Much parapsychology today attempts to find statistical oddities that can't be explained either by the laws of chance or by any other known natural causes. Parapsychologists assume in such cases that they have found evidence for psi. Clairvoyant means clear-seeing. It is the supposed psychic ability to see what is occurring elsewhere. Many people believe in clairvoyance or believe they are clairvoyants themselves, but this ability has never been demonstrated under controlled conditions. Psychometrics is a field in which practitioners attempt to measure psychological response like emotion, intelligence, or other mental-based abilities, of individuals. An individual’s test results are then compared to an average group’s performance in these areas. A key example is the typical IQ test, which measures intelligence quotient. The test score you receive on an IQ test is compared to the body of people who have taken the test previously, and a number is assigned (the score) as your IQ number. Theoretically, a higher number IQ translates to greater intelligence. Since the development of the IQ tests, psychologists have used psychometrics in a variety of ways to look at people’s strengths, their weaknesses, and areas in which they may be disabled or gifted. Psychometrics develops what are called “instruments” in order to make these measurements. Actually instruments are more likely to be tests of a variety of types; so the term sounds a little more concrete than it really is. The goal of using the word instruments is to state the belief that the human psyche can be measured quantifiably, just as you might measure something with a ruler. The other focus of psychometrics is defining how an instrument measures a human mental or emotional capacity. Determining what results mean is usually done by assessing human performance on other tests and evaluating performance on a new instrument with a large group of testers. In simple language, psychometrics develops tests for intelligence factor, emotional quotient, personality, or other, and then determines what results on these tests mean.Talk's about what is and what is not! What could and should be!, Talk's about how to get EVP'S where to look and the info we get!. Talk's feeling's thougt's strong pount's weak pount's and wisdom!. Talk's from reading spirit's ghost shadow's angels and the bad one's And how we can work on way's to help one another!. Copy this code to your website to display this banner! TO THE OWNERS OF THIS SITE I HAVE ?'S THIS IS NOT WORKING!!!.... This page is for Readings and Insight into the Paranormal/Spiritual World. I am here to Learn and help you Learn. I AM NOT here looking to hook up with anyone, I have my true love! This a Help and Learn Paranormal/Spiritual World Page Only. I have the ability to Speak with Spirits when they present themselves to me. Readings are only done when the Spirit leads....this means I cannot and will not demand a Spirit to come forth for you. There will be times when a photo will be requested of you....please do not tell me any information about you or the Spirit you wish to speak with.....I need to reveal this information to you. Also, No Nudity or Dissrespectful Pictures. Mostly, a Face shot of you will be sufficent. I can also REMOTE VIEW, this means that I have the ability to visualize where you or someone else is. This is the ability to mentally travel without actually traveling. These abilities I have are sometimes for Present, Past and Future. But remember, I do readings only when Spirit Leads me. I'm here to help you. You respect me and I will show the utmost respect for you. Thank you, St.Christopher : I'm hoping to help others With the Spirits that come to me!. http://stchristopher1.webs.com/ http://www.myspace.com/kingsseekingyourdreams http://www.myspace.com/stchristophersphantomroom http://www.myspace.com/kingsseekingyourdreams Copy this code to your website to display this banner!Copy this code to your website to display this banner! Check out this ustream Show: PHANTOM PARANORMAL TALK dream of a better world where as people would see each other nothing more than people of a different shade of gray I dream of all my problems crumbling in my hands never to utter another sound I dream of love renewed no more forsaken the day of my fulfillment I dream of blues skies and flowers lying in a field of hope and no more despair I dream of moonlit nights where the smell of jasmine permeates the air with its sweet aroma I dream of being in love once again with that person that just takes my breath away I dream of angels dancing in candle light I dream of naked waterfalls that drench my soul and ease my pain I dream of earthly fulfillments never imagined before I dream of paradise lost and never found I dream of turquoise seas surrounding my unadorned body I dream of piece no longer the beast devouring the children of the west I dream of calmer seas that no longer rocks the boat of tranquility I dream of you and me forever be I dream no more the lonely night of my salvation I dream of happiness once more on my enlightened soul I dream of no more shadows haunting me as I slumber I dream no more my weary eyes of sadness abound I dream crying the day cometh the dawn no more I dream walking on the beach with the one I love hand in hand I dream of midnight caressing while the sun comes up I dream of what could have been, what could be, and what has gone I dream to no longer forsake my sanity to the darkness of my emotions I dream of a place whereas I can lounge and bask in my redolence roses I dream a dream of lesser conscienceless to the world that holds me back I dream of no more waking hours consumed by society at large I dream the dream of romantics no longer uttering there voices aloud I am a dreamer, but without dreamers what would this world be As empty as the heart that knows no love As dark as the night that knows no stars I think so there for I must have feelings I live so there for I must be alive I sleep so there for I must be a dreamer Dream on and let the night bring you to places in the sun St.Christopher06. Deep: Deep as ones spirit that comes alive, Deep as the wind in a storm, Deep deep deep, Deep as the rain beating the roof of one house!. Deep as the spitit that talks to me. So deep that most of them have been killed The other % hung them self Deep as some one loosing in the game of life Deep as the pain of love. Tattoos are a creative means of self expression. Throughout history people have used permanent body art and body piercing to display their individuality, their heritage, their history. They offer the ability to express your individuality in a manner that is uniquely you, depending on the design and placement of the work. I got started at Red Dragon Tattooing in NYC. Went to school for tattooing in Nj school of tattooing. It took me 6 mount's. Services and information for tattoos and Body Piercing, Custom Tattoos from the Soul has been in business since 1992 and has become Maryland's favorite tattoo studio servicing people from around the world including many celebrities. In 1996, we opened our studio, King S Custom Tattooing and Body Piercing, which has quickly become as popular as our original studio. Now I'm working on the opening of Phantom Tattooing. But time is the big ? Dream Categories: Color vs. black and white dreams: Some people feel that as a dream manifests into third dimension it moves from black and white to color Episodic Dreams: Your dream is like a movie, involving a story that goes on and on in sequential order Flying Dreams: These dreams are common. You fly free, escapism, ascension to source, a way to time travel or move through realities. Lucid Dreams: You realize that you are dreaming and can alter the events in the dream [See Below] Repetitive Dreams: You have the same dream over and over as if a message is being sent to you by someone on the other side, which may be your soul. Precognitive Dreams: You dream about events that manifest in the future Shared Dreams: You remember the events in your dream, that involve another person. At the same time, another person in your dream remembers the same events Universal dreams: related to information you receive from the collective unconscious - grids - Akashic records - hall of records - that which creates the reality in which we live. Whenever a dream presents symbols of a cosmic nature, in all probability it is a representation of a Universal dream. Such dreams are reflective of religious experiences, and denote changes that are to occur at some future time. We humans are an interdependent form of life. We share our body with the animals and like them we depend on plants and animal food for our basic survival. But our human minds can learn and invent without limit and we can discover new tools and new ways to work together to solve our problems. We have the potential to develop a synergic relationship with each other. Synergy means we can work together. Sometimes you depend on me, sometimes I depend on you. The synergic way is the only way that will work for humans. A definition is a statement of the meaning of a word or phrase. The term to be defined is known as the definiendum (Latin: that which is to be defined). The words which define it are known as the definiens (Latin: that which is doing the defining). Tell me your pount of view if you like!, The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) was founded in London in 1882. The formation of the SPR was the first systematic effort to organize scientists and scholars for a critical and sustained investigation of paranormal phenomena. The early membership of the SPR included philosophers, scholars, scientists, educators and politicians, such as Henry Sidgwick, Arthur Balfour, William Crookes, and Charles Richet. The SPR classified its subjects of study into several areas: telepathy, hypnotism, Reichenbach's phenomena, apparitions, haunts, and the physical aspects of Spiritualism such as table-tilting and the appearance of matter from unknown sources, otherwise known as materialization. One of the first collaborative efforts of the SPR was its Census of Hallucinations, which researched apparitional experiences and hallucinations in the sane. The census was the Society's first attempt at a statistical evaluation of paranormal phenomena, and the resulting publication in 1886, Phantasms of the Living is still widely referenced in parapsychological literature today. The SPR became the model for similar societies in other European countries and the United States during the late 19th century. Largely due to the support of psychologist William James, the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) opened its doors in New York City in 1885. Today, the SPR and ASPR continue the investigation of psi phenomena. The SPR's purpose is stated in every issue of its Journal—being "to examine without prejudice or prepossession and in a scientific spirit those faculties of man, real or supposed, which appear to be inexplicable on any generally recognized hypothesis." Rhine era In 1911, Stanford University became the first academic institution in the United States to study extrasensory perception (ESP) and psychokinesis (PK) in a laboratory setting. The effort was headed by psychologist John Edgar Coover. In 1930, Duke University became the second major U.S. academic institution to engage in the critical study of ESP and psychokinesis in the laboratory. Under the guidance of psychologist William McDougall, and with the help of others in the department—including psychologists Karl Zener, Joseph B. Rhine, and Louisa E. Rhine—laboratory ESP experiments using volunteer subjects from the undergraduate student body began. As opposed to the approaches of psychical research, which generally sought qualitative evidence for paranormal phenomena, the experiments at Duke University proffered a quantitative, statistical approach using cards and dice. As a consequence of the ESP experiments at Duke, standard laboratory procedures for the testing of ESP developed and came to be adopted by interested researchers throughout the world. The publication of J.B. Rhine's book, New Frontiers of the Mind (1937) brought the laboratory's findings to the general public. In his book, Rhine popularized the word "parapsychology," which psychologist Max Dessoir had coined over 40 years earlier, to describe the research conducted at Duke. Rhine also founded an autonomous Parapsychology Laboratory within Duke and started the Journal of Parapsychology, which he co-edited with McDougall. The parapsychology experiments at Duke evoked much criticism from academic psychologists who challenged the concepts and evidence of ESP. Rhine and his colleagues attempted to address these criticisms through new experiments, articles, and books, and summarized the state of the criticism along with their responses in the book Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years. The administration of Duke grew less sympathetic to parapsychology, and after Rhine's retirement in 1965 parapsychological links with the university were broken. Rhine later established the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (FRNM) and the Institute for Parapsychology as a successor to the Duke laboratory. In 1995, the centenary of Rhine's birth, the FRNM was renamed the Rhine Research Center. Today, the Rhine Research Center is a parapsychology research unit, stating that it "aims to improve the human condition by creating a scientific understanding of those abilities and sensitivities that appear to transcend the ordinary limits of space and time." Establishment of the Parapsychological Association The Parapsychological Association (PA) was created in Durham, North Carolina, on June 19, 1957. Its formation was proposed by J. B. Rhine at a workshop on parapsychology which was held at the Parapsychology Laboratory of Duke University. Rhine proposed that the group form itself into the nucleus of an international professional society in parapsychology. The aim of the organization, as stated in its Constitution, became "to advance parapsychology as a science, to disseminate knowledge of the field, and to integrate the findings with those of other branches of science". Under the direction of anthropologist Margaret Mead, the Parapsychological Association took a large step in advancing the field of parapsychology in 1969 when it became affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the largest general scientific society in the world. In 1979, physicist John A. Wheeler argued that parapsychology is pseudoscientific, and that the affiliation of the PA to the AAAS needed to be reconsidered. His challenge to parapsychology's AAAS affiliation was unsuccessful. Today, the PA consists of about three hundred full, associate, and affiliated members worldwide and maintains its affiliation with the AAAS. The annual AAAS convention provides a forum where parapsychologists can present their research to scientists from other fields and advance parapsychology in the context of the AAAS's lobbying on national science policy. Decade of increased research (1970s) The affiliation of the Parapsychological Association (PA) with the American Association for the Advancement of Science, along with a general openness to psychic and occult phenomena in the 1970s, led to a decade of increased parapsychological research. During this period, other notable organizations were also formed, including the Academy of Parapsychology and Medicine (1970), the Institute of Parascience (1971), the Academy of Religion and Psychical Research, the Institute of Noetic Sciences (1973), the International Kirlian Research Association (1975), and the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory (1979). Parapsychological work was also conducted at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during this time. The scope of parapsychology expanded during these years. Psychiatrist Ian Stevenson conducted much of his controversial research into reincarnation during the 1970s. Psychologist Thelma Moss devoted time to the study of Kirlian photography at UCLA's parapsychology laboratory. The influx of spiritual teachers from Asia, and their claims of abilities produced by meditation, led to research on altered states of consciousness. Physicist Russell Targ coined the term remote viewing for use in some of his work at SRI in 1974. During this period, academics outside parapsychology also appeared to have a general optimism towards this research. In 1979, a survey of more than 1,100 college professors in the United States found that only 2% of psychologists expressed the belief that extrasensory perception was an impossibility. A far greater number, 34%, indicated that they believed ESP was either an established fact or a likely possibility. The percentage was even higher in other areas of study: 55% of natural scientists, 66% of social scientists (excluding psychologists), and 77% of academics in the arts, humanities, and education believed that ESP research was worthwhile. The surge in paranormal research continued throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s. By the end of the 1980s, the Parapsychological Association reported members working in more than 30 countries. Additionally, research not affiliated with the PA was being carried out in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Parapsychology today Since the 1970s, contemporary parapsychological research has waned considerably in the United States. Early research was considered inconclusive, and parapsychologists were faced with strong opposition from their academic colleagues. Some effects thought to be paranormal, for example, the effects of Kirlian photography, disappeared under more stringent controls, leaving those avenues of research at dead-ends. Many university laboratories in the United States have closed, citing a lack of acceptance by mainstream science as the reason, leaving the bulk of parapsychology confined to private institutions funded by private sources. After 28 years of research, Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory (PEAR) retired their laboratory in 2007. Two universities in the United States still have academic parapsychology laboratories: the Division of Perceptual Studies, a unit at the University of Virginia's Department of Psychiatric Medicine, studies the possibility of survival of consciousness after bodily death; the University of Arizona's Veritas Laboratory conducts laboratory investigations of mediums. Several private institutions, including the Institute of Noetic Sciences, conduct and promote parapsychological research. Britain leads parapsychological study in Europe, with privately funded laboratories at the universities of Edinburgh, Northampton, and Liverpool Hope, among others. Parapsychological research has also been augmented by other sub-disciplines of psychology. These related fields include transpersonal psychology, which studies transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind, and anomalistic psychology, which examines paranormal beliefs and subjective anomalous experiences in traditional psychological terms.
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